amakuru

amakuru

Hamwe niterambere ridahwema no kunoza ikoranabuhanga rya tekinoroji, tekinoroji ihanitse ikoreshwa muburyo bwose mubuzima bwa kijyambere, nko gukora ubushakashatsi no gushushanya amakarita, ubuhinzi bwuzuye, uav, gutwara abantu batagira abadereva nizindi nzego, tekinoroji ihagaze neza irashobora kugaragara ahantu hose.By'umwihariko, hamwe no kurangiza urusobe rwibisekuru bishya bya sisitemu ya satelite ya Beidou nogutwara ibihe bya 5G, biteganijwe ko iterambere rihoraho rya Beidou + 5G rizateza imbere ikoreshwa rya tekinoroji ihanitse mu bijyanye na gahunda y’indege. , kugenzura robo, kugenzura ibinyabiziga, gucunga ibikoresho nibindi bice.Kumenyekanisha tekinoroji ihanitse yo gutondekanya ntishobora gutandukana ninkunga ya antenne ihanitse, algorithm yo hejuru cyane hamwe namakarita yubuyobozi.Uru rupapuro rwerekana cyane cyane iterambere nogukoresha antenne yuzuye neza, imiterere yikoranabuhanga nibindi.

1. Gutezimbere no gukoresha GNSS antenne-yuzuye neza

1.1 Antenna isobanutse neza

Muri FIELD ya GNSS, antenne-yuzuye neza ni ubwoko bwa antenne ifite ibisabwa byihariye kugirango ituze ryikigo cya antenna.Ubusanzwe ihujwe nubuyobozi-busobanutse neza kugirango tumenye neza-umwanya uhagaze wa santimetero-urwego cyangwa milimetero-urwego.Mugushushanya antenne-yuzuye neza, mubisanzwe haribisabwa byihariye kubipimo bikurikira: ubugari bwa antenna, ubwiyongere buke buke, kutuzenguruka, coefficient de coiffe, igipimo cyimbere ninyuma, ubushobozi bwo kurwanya Multipath, nibindi. mu buryo butaziguye cyangwa butaziguye bigira ingaruka ku cyiciro cya centre itajegajega ya antenne, hanyuma ikagira ingaruka kumyanya ihagaze.

1.2 Gushyira mubikorwa no gutondekanya antenne yuzuye

Antenna isobanutse neza ya GNSS yabanje gukoreshwa mubijyanye no gukora ubushakashatsi no gushushanya kugirango igere kuri milimetero ihagaze neza murwego rwo gutunganya ibishushanyo mbonera, gushushanya amakarita ya topografiya hamwe nubushakashatsi butandukanye bwo kugenzura.Hamwe nubuhanga buhanitse bwo gutezimbere bugenda bukura, antenne yukuri irakoreshwa buhoro buhoro mubice byinshi, birimo sitasiyo ikomeza ikora, kugenzura imiterere, kugenzura imitingito, gupima ubushakashatsi no gushushanya, ibinyabiziga byo mu kirere bitagira abapilote (uavs), ahantu hasobanutse neza ubuhinzi, gutwara ibinyabiziga, gutwara ibizamini byo gutwara ibinyabiziga, imashini zubaka n’ahandi mu nganda, mubisabwa bitandukanye kubipimo bisabwa na antenne nabyo bifite itandukaniro rigaragara.

1.2.1 Sisitemu ya CORS, kugenzura imiterere, kugenzura imitingito - antenne yerekana sitasiyo

Antenna yukuri yukuri yakoresheje sitasiyo yibikorwa ikomeza, binyuze mukurebera igihe kirekire amakuru yukuri, kandi binyuze muri sisitemu yitumanaho ryamakuru mugihe nyacyo cyo kureba amakuru yoherejwe mukigo gishinzwe kugenzura, ikosa ryikibanza kibarwa kibarwa nyuma yo gukosora kugirango uzamure Sisitemu yubutaka, ninyenyeri muri waas byongera sisitemu, nibindi, kugirango wohereze ubutumwa bwamakosa kuri rover (umukiriya), Hanyuma, uyikoresha arashobora kubona amakuru ahuza neza [1].

Mu gushyira mu bikorwa igenzura ry’imiterere, gukurikirana imitingito n’ibindi, kubera ko ari ngombwa kugenzura neza ingano y’imiterere, gutahura ihinduka rito, kugira ngo hamenyekane ibiza byibiza.

Kubwibyo, mugushushanya antenne ihanitse cyane ya progaramu nka progaramu ihoraho ikora, kugenzura imikorere no kugenzura imitingito, icyifuzo cya mbere kigomba kuba icyiciro cyiza cya centre ihamye hamwe nubushobozi bwo kurwanya interineti, kugirango itange igihe nyacyo umwanya wamakuru kuri sisitemu zitandukanye zongerewe imbaraga.Mubyongeyeho, kugirango utange ibipimo byinshi byo gukosora ibyogajuru bishoboka, antene igomba kwakira satelite nyinshi zishoboka, sisitemu enye yuzuye yumurongo wahindutse iboneza bisanzwe.Muri ubu bwoko bwa porogaramu, antenne yerekana sitasiyo (antenna yerekana sitasiyo) ikubiyemo umurongo wose wa sisitemu enye ikoreshwa nka antenne yo kwitegereza ya sisitemu.

1.2.2 Ubushakashatsi no gushushanya - Byubatswe muri antenne yo gupima

Mu rwego rwo gukora ubushakashatsi no gushushanya, birakenewe gushushanya antenne yubushakashatsi yubatswe byoroshye guhuza.Ubusanzwe antenne yubatswe hejuru yumukiriya wa RTK kugirango igere ku gihe nyacyo kandi gihamye neza mubijyanye nubushakashatsi no gushushanya.

Yubatswe mugupima antenne muburyo bwingenzi mugushushanya kumurongo uhoraho, gukwirakwiza urumuri, hagati yicyiciro, ingano ya antenne, nibindi, cyane cyane hamwe no gukoresha umuyoboro RTK, uhujwe na 4 g, bluetooth, WiFi netcom yose yubatswe- mugupima antenne buhoro buhoro ifata umugabane wingenzi ku isoko, kuva yatangizwa muri 2016 nabenshi mubakora RTK yakira, Byakoreshejwe cyane kandi bitezwa imbere.

1.2.3 Ikizamini cyo gutwara no guhugura gutwara, gutwara abantu - gutwara antenne yo gupima

Sisitemu yo kwipimisha gakondo ifite ibibi byinshi, nkigiciro kinini cyo kwinjiza, gukora cyane no kubungabunga ibiciro, ingaruka zikomeye kubidukikije, kutamenya neza, nibindi. kwisuzuma ryubwenge, kandi isuzuma ryukuri ni ryinshi, rigabanya cyane ibiciro byabantu nibikoresho byo kwipimisha.

Mu myaka yashize, sisitemu yo gutwara abantu idafite iterambere.Mu gutwara abantu badafite abapilote, tekinoroji ya tekinoroji ya RTK ihagaze neza neza hamwe no kugendana inertial guhuza imyanya isanzwe ikoreshwa, ishobora kugera kumyanya ihanitse mubidukikije.

Mu myitozo yo gutwara ibizamini byo gutwara ibinyabiziga, nka sisitemu zitagira abapilote, akenshi antenne ipimwa hamwe nuburyo bwo hanze, gukenera gukora inshuro nyinshi, antenne yumurongo mwinshi hamwe na sisitemu nyinshi irashobora kugera kumyanya ihanitse, ibimenyetso byinshi bifite aho bihurira, nibidukikije byiza guhuza n'imiterere, birashobora gukoreshwa igihe kirekire mubidukikije hanze nta gutsindwa.

1.2.4 UAV - Antenna ya uav-yuzuye neza

Mu myaka yashize, inganda za uav zateye imbere byihuse.Uav yakoreshejwe cyane mukurinda ibihingwa byubuhinzi, gukora ubushakashatsi no gushushanya, irondo ryumurongo wamashanyarazi nibindi bihe.Mu bihe nk'ibi, gusa ifite antenne yuzuye neza irashobora kwemeza neza, imikorere n'umutekano mubikorwa bitandukanye.Bitewe nibiranga umuvuduko mwinshi, umutwaro woroheje hamwe no kwihangana kugufi kwa uav, igishushanyo cya antenne ya uav ihanitse cyane yibanda cyane kuburemere, ingano, gukoresha amashanyarazi nibindi bintu, kandi ikanamenya igishushanyo mbonera cyagutse hashoboka hashingiwe kubyemeza uburemere n'ubunini.

2, imiterere ya tekinoroji ya GNSS murugo no mumahanga

2.1 Imiterere yubu ya tekinoroji ya antenne yo mu mahanga

Ubushakashatsi bw’amahanga kuri antenne yuzuye neza bwatangiye hakiri kare, kandi hateguwe urukurikirane rwibicuruzwa bya antenne bihanitse kandi bifite imikorere myiza byakozwe, nka GNSS 750 ya choke antenna ya NoVatel, antenne ya Zepryr ya Trimble, antenna ya Leica AR25, nibindi, nibindi. hari uburyo bwinshi bwa antenne ifite akamaro gakomeye.Kubwibyo, mu gihe cyashize igihe kirekire, isoko rya antenne yo mu Bushinwa ihanitse cyane ntirishobora kwiharira ibicuruzwa by’amahanga.Nyamara, mu myaka icumi ishize, hamwe n’izamuka ry’umubare munini w’abakora mu gihugu, imikorere ya antenne yo mu mahanga ya GNSS yo mu rwego rwo hejuru nta nyungu ifite, ariko abakora ibicuruzwa by’imbere mu gihugu batangiye kwagura isoko mu bihugu by’amahanga.

Byongeye kandi, bamwe mubakora antenna nshya ya GNSS nabo bateye imbere mumyaka yashize, nka Maxtena, Tallysman, nibindi, ibicuruzwa byabo ni antenne ntoya ya GNSS ikoreshwa kuri uav, ibinyabiziga nubundi buryo.Imiterere ya antenne ni antenne ya microstrip hamwe na dielectric ihoraho cyangwa antenne yintoki enye.Muri ubu bwoko bwa tekinoroji ya antenne, abakora mu mahanga nta nyungu bafite, ibicuruzwa byo mu gihugu ndetse n’amahanga byinjira mugihe cyo guhatanira ababana bahuje ibitsina.

微 信 图片 _20210810171649

2.2 Ibihe byubu bya tekinoroji ya antenna yo murugo

Mu myaka icumi ishize, umubare munini wabakora antenne murugo-batangiye gukura na deIterambere, nka Huaxin Antenna, Zhonghaida, Dingyao, Jiali Electronics, nibindi, byateje imbere ibicuruzwa bya antenne bihanitse kandi bifite uburenganzira bwumutungo wubwenge wigenga.

Kurugero, mubijyanye na antenne ya sitasiyo ya antenne hamwe na antenne yo gupima, antenna ya 3D ya choke ya HUaxin hamwe na antenne yuzuye ya netcom ntabwo igera gusa ku rwego mpuzamahanga ruyobora imikorere, ariko kandi yujuje ibisabwa mubikorwa bitandukanye by’ibidukikije kandi byizewe, ubuzima burebure burigihe nigipimo gito cyo gutsindwa.

Mu nganda z’imodoka, uav n’izindi nganda, tekinoroji yo gushushanya antenne yo gupima hanze na antenne yintoki enye zarakuze cyane, kandi yakoreshejwe cyane mugukoresha sisitemu yikizamini cyo gutwara ibinyabiziga, gutwara abantu badafite abapilote, uav nizindi nganda, kandi yageze ku nyungu nziza mu bukungu n'imibereho myiza.

微 信 图片 _20210810171746微 信 图片 _20210810171659

3. Ibihe byubu hamwe nicyizere cyisoko rya antenne ya GNSS

Muri 2018, ibicuruzwa byose byinjira mu Bushinwa byohereza ibyogajuru n’inganda zitanga serivisi byageze kuri miliyari 301.6 YUAN, byiyongereyeho 18.3% ugereranije na 2017 [2], kandi bizagera kuri miliyari 400 mu mwaka wa 2020;Muri 2019, igiciro rusange cy’isoko ryogeza ibyogajuru ku isi cyari miliyari 150 z'amayero, kandi umubare w'abakoresha itumanaho rya GNSS wageze kuri miliyari 6.4.Inganda za GNSS ni imwe mu nganda nke zahuye n'ihungabana ry'ubukungu ku isi.Ikigo cy’ibihugu by’i Burayi GNSS giteganya ko isoko ryo kugendesha ibyogajuru ku isi rizikuba kabiri kugeza kuri miliyari zirenga 300 z'amayero mu myaka icumi iri imbere, aho umubare wa GNSS wiyongera ugera kuri miliyari 9.5.

Isoko ryo kugendesha ibyogajuru kwisi yose, rikoreshwa mumihanda, ibinyabiziga bitagira abapilote mubice nkibikoresho bya terefone biri mumyaka 10 iri imbere igice cyihuta cyisoko ryisoko: ubwenge, ibinyabiziga bitagira abapilote nicyerekezo nyamukuru cyiterambere, ibinyabiziga bizaza mumihanda bizaza ubushobozi bwo gutwara yikinyabiziga kigomba kuba gifite antenne ya GNSS ifite ibisobanuro bihanitse, bityo isoko rikenewe cyane kuri antenne ya GNSS itwara byikora.Hamwe niterambere rikomeje guteza imbere ubuhinzi bugezweho mu buhinzi, ikoreshwa rya uav rifite antenne ihagaze neza cyane, nka kurinda ibimera, bizakomeza kwiyongera.

4. Iterambere ryiterambere rya GNSS antenna yuzuye

Nyuma yimyaka yiterambere, tekinoroji zitandukanye za antenne ya GNSS yuzuye neza irakuze, ariko haracyari inzira nyinshi zo gucika:

1. Miniaturisation: Miniaturizasi yibikoresho bya elegitoronike ni inzira yiterambere ryiteka, cyane cyane mubisabwa nka uav na hand hand, icyifuzo cya antenne ntoya ni cyihutirwa.Ariko, imikorere ya antenne izagabanuka nyuma ya miniaturizasi.Nigute wagabanya ingano ya antenne mugihe wemeza imikorere yuzuye nicyerekezo cyingenzi cyubushakashatsi bwa antenne ihanitse.

2. Ikoreshwa rya anti-multipath: Ikoreshwa rya anti-multipath ya antenna ya GNSS ikubiyemo cyane cyane tekinoroji ya choke coil [3], ibikoresho bya elegitoroniki yububiko bwa elegitoroniki [4] [5], nibindi, ariko, byose bifite ibibi nkubunini bunini, umurongo muto ubugari nigiciro kinini, kandi ntishobora kugera kubishushanyo mbonera.Niyo mpamvu, birakenewe kwiga tekinoroji irwanya Multipath hamwe nibiranga miniaturizasiya na Broadband kugirango byuzuze ibisabwa bitandukanye.

3. Imikorere myinshi: Muri iki gihe, usibye antenne ya GNSS, antenne irenze imwe y'itumanaho ihuriweho n'ibikoresho bitandukanye.Sisitemu zitandukanye zitumanaho zirashobora gutera ibimenyetso bitandukanye kubangamira antenne ya GNSS, bigira ingaruka kubakira bisanzwe.Kubwibyo, igishushanyo mbonera cya antenne ya GNSS na antenne yitumanaho bigerwaho binyuze mubikorwa byinshi, kandi ingaruka zo guhuza hagati ya antene zitaweho mugihe cyo gushushanya, zishobora kuzamura urwego rwoguhuza, kunoza imiterere ya electromagnetique no kunoza imikorere imashini yose.


Igihe cyo kohereza: Ukwakira-25-2021