amakuru

amakuru

Kazoza ka 5G duhereye kubitekerezo byabakoresha hamwe: Ubwihindurize bukomeza bwa all-band ya tekinoroji ya antenna

Nk’uko Minisiteri y’inganda n’ikoranabuhanga mu itumanaho ibitangaza, mu mpera za Kamena uyu mwaka, hubatswe sitasiyo fatizo 961.000 5G, miliyoni 365 za terefone zigendanwa za terefone zigendanwa zahujwe, zikaba zirenga 80 ku ijana by’isi yose, kandi hari n'ibindi ibirenga 10,000 5G byo guhanga udushya mubushinwa.

Iterambere rya 5G mu Bushinwa ryihuta, ariko ntirihagije.Vuba aha, mu rwego rwo kubaka umuyoboro wa 5G ufite ubwaguke kandi bwimbitse, Ubushinwa Telecom na China Unicom bafatanije kugura sitasiyo fatizo 240.000 2.1g 5G, naho Ubushinwa Mobile na radiyo na televiziyo byafatanyije kugura sitasiyo fatizo 480.000 700M 5G, hamwe n’ishoramari 58 miliyari

Inganda zita cyane ku isoko ryo gupiganira amasoko y’imbere mu gihugu n’amahanga, kandi dusanga iterambere rya 5G riva muri aya masoko yombi.Abakoresha ntibitaye gusa kuburambe bwabakoresha nkubushobozi bwa 5G numuvuduko, ariko nanone bitondera gukwirakwiza 5G no gukoresha ingufu nke.

5G imaze imyaka igera kuri ibiri iboneka mu bucuruzi kandi biteganijwe ko izagera kuri miliyoni 1.7 mu mpera zuyu mwaka, hamwe na miliyoni nyinshi zindi sitasiyo fatizo 5G zizubakwa mu myaka iri imbere (mu Bushinwa hari sitasiyo z’ibanze zigera kuri miliyoni 6 n’ibindi 5G kuza).

None 5G izajya he kuva igice cya kabiri cya 2021?Nigute abakoresha bakora 5G?Umwanditsi asanga ibisubizo bimwe byirengagijwe kubisabwa kugirango amasoko rusange hamwe nindege igezweho ya 5G ikoranabuhanga ahantu hatandukanye.

微 信 图片 _20210906164341

1 、 niba ifite ibyiza byinshi mukubaka umuyoboro wa 5G

Hamwe nogukomeza ubucuruzi bwa 5G no kuzamura igipimo cya 5G cyinjira, umuvuduko wa terefone igendanwa uragenda wiyongera cyane, kandi abantu bazakenera byinshi kandi byisumbuyeho kumuvuduko no gukwirakwiza umuyoboro wa 5G.Imibare yaturutse muri ITU n'indi miryango yerekana ko mu 2025, umukoresha wa 5G mu Bushinwa DOU azava kuri 15GB agera kuri 100GB (26GB ku isi yose), kandi umubare wa 5G uza kugera kuri miliyari 2.6.

Nigute ushobora kuzuza ibyifuzo bya 5G ejo hazaza kandi neza kandi bihendutse kubaka umuyoboro wo murwego rwohejuru wa 5G ufite ubwinshi bwagutse, umuvuduko wihuse hamwe no kumva neza byabaye ikibazo cyihutirwa kubakoresha muriki cyiciro.Abatwara ibintu bagomba gukora iki?

Reka duhere kuri bande ikomeye.Mu bihe biri imbere, imirongo ya radiyo ntoya nka 700M, 800M na 900M, imirongo yo hagati yo hagati nka 1.8G, 2.1g, 2.6G na 3.5g, hamwe na milimetero ndende ya milimetero izamurwa kuri 5G.Ariko ubutaha, abashoramari bakeneye gusuzuma uburyo bushobora guhuza neza abakoresha 5G.

Banza urebe kuri frequency nke.Ibimenyetso bya bande nkeya bifite uburyo bwiza bwo kwinjira, ibyiza mugukwirakwiza, kubaka umuyoboro muke no kubungabunga ibiciro, kandi ababikora bamwe bakungahaye kumikoreshereze yumurongo wa bande, ibyo bikaba bihagije mubyiciro byambere byo kubaka urusobe.

Abakoresha bakoresha 5G mumurongo muke nabo bahura nibibazo byo kwivanga kwinshi kandi ugereranije umuvuduko wurusobe.Ukurikije ikizamini, umuvuduko wa bande 5G wihuta inshuro 1.8 gusa ugereranije nu muyoboro wa 4G ufite umurongo umwe muto, ukaba ukiri mu ntera ya Mbps mirongo.Birashobora kuvugwa ko ari umuyoboro wa 5G utinda cyane kandi ntushobora kuzuza ibyo abakoresha bakeneye kugirango bamenye 5G.

Bitewe n’uruhererekane rw’inganda zidakuze rw’umuyoboro muke, imiyoboro ibiri y’ubucuruzi 800M 5G yonyine niyo yasohotse ku isi muri iki gihe, mu gihe imiyoboro y’ubucuruzi 900M 5G itarasohoka.Kubwibyo, hakiri kare kubyutsa 5G kuri 800M / 900M.Biteganijwe ko urwego rwinganda rushobora kugera munzira nziza nyuma ya 2024.

Imiraba ya milimetero.Abakoresha bakoresha 5G mumurongo mwinshi wa milimetero, ishobora kuzana abakoresha umuvuduko wo kohereza amakuru byihuse, ariko intera yohereza ni ngufi, cyangwa intego yicyiciro gikurikira cyo kubaka.Ibyo bivuze ko abakoresha bakeneye kubaka sitasiyo ya 5G kandi bagakoresha amafaranga menshi.Biragaragara, kubakoresha kuri iki cyiciro, usibye ibisabwa bishyushye bisabwa, ibindi bintu ntibikwiriye kubaka umurongo mwinshi.

Kandi amaherezo.Abakora bubaka 5G mugice cyo hagati, gishobora gutanga amakuru yihuta kandi nubushobozi bwamakuru burenze icyerekezo cyo hasi.Ugereranije na spekure ndende, irashobora kugabanya umubare wubwubatsi bwibanze no kugabanya ibiciro byubwubatsi bwabakoresha.Byongeye kandi, urunigi rwinganda zihuza nka chip ya terefone nibikoresho bya sitasiyo birakuze.

Kubwibyo, mubitekerezo byumwanditsi, mumyaka mike iri imbere, abashoramari bazakomeza kwibanda ku iyubakwa rya sitasiyo fatizo ya 5G mu gice cyo hagati, hiyongeraho andi matsinda ya radiyo.Muri ubu buryo, abakoresha barashobora kubona uburinganire hagati yubugari bwikwirakwizwa, ikiguzi nubushobozi.

Nk’uko bitangazwa na GSA, ku isi hose hari imiyoboro y'ubucuruzi irenga 160 5G, aho bane ba mbere ari imiyoboro ya 3.5g (123), imiyoboro ya 2.1G (21), imiyoboro 2.6G (14) na 700M (13).Uhereye kuri terefone, 3.5g + 2.1g inganda zikura ni imyaka 2 kugeza kuri 3 iri imbere, cyane cyane 2.1g gukura kwa terefone byegereye 3.5 / 2.6g.

Inganda zikuze nizo shingiro ryiterambere ryubucuruzi bwa 5G.Dufatiye kuri iyi ngingo, abashoramari b'Abashinwa bubaka 5G hamwe na 2.1g + 3.5g na 700M + 2.6G bafite imiyoboro ya mbere yimuka mu nganda mu myaka iri imbere.

2 、 FDD 8 t8r

Fasha abakoresha gukora cyane agaciro kaciriritse

Usibye spekiteri, antene nyinshi nazo ni urufunguzo rwo guhuza ubwihindurize bwibikorwa bya 5G.Kugeza ubu, 4T4R (enye zanduza antene na enye zakira antene) hamwe nubundi buryo bwa tekinoroji ya antenne ya sitasiyo ikunze gukoreshwa mu miyoboro ya 5G FDD n’abakoresha ntibagishoboye guhangana n’ibibazo biterwa no kwiyongera kw’umuhanda hongerwa gusa umurongo wa interineti.

Byongeye kandi, uko abakoresha 5G bakura, abakoresha bagomba kongera umubare wibanze kugirango bashyigikire imiyoboro minini, biganisha ku kwivanga kwabo hagati yabakoresha.Tekinoroji ya antenna ya 2T2R na 4T4R ntabwo ishyigikira ubuyobozi nyabwo kurwego rwabakoresha kandi ntishobora kugera kumurongo wukuri, bigatuma umuvuduko wabakoresha ugabanuka.

Ni ubuhe bwoko bwa tekinoroji ya antenna izafasha abayikoresha kugera kuri 5G mugukwirakwiza mugihe hanazirikanwa ibintu nkubushobozi bwa sitasiyo nuburambe bwabakoresha?Nkuko tubizi, umuvuduko wogukwirakwiza umuyoboro utagendanwa ahanini biterwa nuburyo bwakazi bwo kohereza no kwakira ibimenyetso hagati yumurongo wibanze hamwe nibikoresho bya terefone nka terefone zifite ubwenge, mugihe tekinoroji ya antenne myinshi ishobora kwikuba kabiri ubushobozi bwa sitasiyo fatizo (urumuri rushingiye kuri antenne nyinshi irashobora kugenzura kwivanga).

Kubwibyo, iterambere ryihuse rya 5G risaba ubwihindurize buhoraho bwa FDD kugeza 8T8R, Massive MIMO nubundi buryo bwa tekinoroji ya antenna.Mubitekerezo byumwanditsi, 8T8R izaba icyerekezo cyubwubatsi kizaza cyumuyoboro wa 5GFDD kugirango ugere kuri "uburambe no gukwirakwiza" kubwimpamvu zikurikira.

Ubwa mbere, duhereye kubisanzwe, 3GPP yazamuwe muri buri verisiyo ya protocole hitawe kuri terefone nyinshi-antenne.Verisiyo ya R17 izagabanya itumanaho rinini kandi igerageze itumanaho ryumurongo binyuze mumakuru yicyiciro hagati yimbere na epfo na ruguru ya sitasiyo fatizo.Verisiyo ya R18 nayo izongeramo code-yuzuye neza.

Ishyirwa mu bikorwa ryibi bipimo risaba byibura sitasiyo fatizo ya 5G FDD kugira tekinoroji ya antenna 8T8R.Muri icyo gihe, protocole ya R15 na R16 mugihe cya 5G yazamuye imikorere yabo hamwe ninkunga ya 2.1g nini-nini ya 2CC CA.Porotokole ya R17 na R18 nayo izayobora ubwihindurize bukomeje bwa FDD Massive MIMO.

Icya kabiri, duhereye kuri terefone, 4R (enye yakira antene) ya terefone zigezweho hamwe nandi ma terefone irashobora kurekura ubushobozi bwa sitasiyo fatizo ya 2.1g 8T8R, kandi 4R ikaba ihinduka iboneza rya terefone zigendanwa 5G, zishobora gufatanya na umuyoboro kugirango wongere agaciro antene nyinshi.

Mu bihe biri imbere, hashyizweho itumanaho rya 6R / 8R mu nganda, kandi ikoranabuhanga rigezweho ryagezweho: ikoranabuhanga rya antenna 6 ryashyizwe mu mashini yose ya terefone, kandi icyiciro rusange cya baseband 8R protocole cyashyigikiwe muri itumanaho rya baseband itunganya.

Impapuro zera zijyanye na China Telecom na China Unicom zifata 5G 2.1g 4R nka terefone igendanwa iteganijwe, bisaba telefone zigendanwa zose za 5G FDD ku isoko ry’Ubushinwa gushyigikira Sub3GHz 4R.

Ku bijyanye n’abakora itumanaho, terefone zigendanwa zo hagati na zohejuru zohejuru zashyigikiye 5G FDD hagati ya 1.8 / 2.1g 4R, naho ejo hazaza 5G FDD igendanwa izafasha Sub 3GHz 4R, izaba isanzwe.

Mugihe kimwe, ubushobozi bwo guhuza imiyoboro ninyungu nyamukuru ya FDD 5G.Ukurikije ikizamini, uburambe bwo hejuru bwa 2.1g nini-nini ya 2T (2 yanduza antene) yarenze ya 3.5g.Birashobora guhanurwa ko, bitewe naya marushanwa ku isoko rya terefone hamwe n’ibisabwa n’abakoresha, terefone zigendanwa zo mu rwego rwo hejuru zizashyigikira uplink 2T mu itsinda rya 2.1g mu gihe kiri imbere.

Icya gatatu, duhereye ku bunararibonye, ​​60% kugeza 70% byubu bikenerwa na terefone igendanwa biva mu nzu, ariko urukuta rwa sima ruremereye imbere ruzaba inzitizi nini kuri sitasiyo ya Acer yo hanze kugirango igere ku nzu.

2.1g 8T8R tekinoroji ya antenne ifite ubushobozi bukomeye bwo kwinjira kandi irashobora kugera kumbere mu nyubako zuburaro.Irakwiranye na serivisi zidatinze kandi iha abashoramari inyungu nyinshi mumarushanwa azaza.Mubyongeyeho, ugereranije na selile gakondo ya 4T4R, ubushobozi bwa selile 8T8R bwiyongereyeho 70% naho ubwiyongere bwiyongera kuri 4dB.

Hanyuma, duhereye kubikorwa byo kubungabunga no kubungabunga ibiciro, kuruhande rumwe, tekinoroji ya antenna ya 8T8R niyo ihitamo ryiza haba murwego rwo hejuru rwimijyi no gukwirakwiza icyaro, kuko ifite ibyiza byo gutondeka kandi ntigomba gusimburwa mumyaka 10 nyuma yuko umukoresha ashora imari.

Kurundi ruhande, tekinoroji ya antenna 2.1g 8T8R irashobora kuzigama 30% -40% yumubare wibibanza ugereranije no kubaka umuyoboro wa 4T4R, kandi bivugwa ko TCO ishobora kuzigama hejuru ya 30% mumyaka 7.Ku bakora, kugabanya umubare wa sitasiyo ya 5G bivuze ko umuyoboro ushobora kugera ku mikoreshereze y’ingufu nke mu gihe kiri imbere, ibyo bikaba bihuye n’intego y’Ubushinwa “dual carbone”.

Birakwiye ko tuvuga ko ibikoresho byo mu kirere bya sitasiyo ya 5G ya none bigarukira, kandi buri mukoresha afite inkingi imwe cyangwa ebyiri muri buri murenge.Antenne ishyigikira tekinoroji ya antenna ya 8T8R irashobora kwinjizwa muri antene ya 3G na 4G ya rezo ya Live, koroshya cyane urubuga no kuzigama ubukode bwurubuga.

3 、 FDD 8T8R ntabwo ari igitekerezo

Abakoresha baragerageje ahantu henshi

Ikoranabuhanga rya FDD 8T8R ryinshi-antenne yoherejwe mubucuruzi nabakozi barenga 30 kwisi.Mubushinwa, abashoramari benshi baho nabo barangije kwemeza ubucuruzi bwa 8T8R kandi bagera kubisubizo byiza.

Muri kamena uyu mwaka, Xiamen Telecom na Huawei barangije gufungura urubuga rwa mbere rwa 4 / 5G rwuburyo bubiri bwa 2.1g 8T8R.Binyuze mu kizamini, usanga ubujyakuzimu bwa 5G 2.1g 8T8R butezwa imbere na 4dB kandi ubushobozi bwo kugabanuka bwiyongereyeho hejuru ya 50% ugereranije na 4T4R gakondo.

Muri Nyakanga uyu mwaka, Ikigo cy’ubushakashatsi cy’Ubushinwa na Guangzhou Unicom cyifatanije na Huawei kugira ngo barangize igenzura ry’ikibanza cya mbere cy’Ubushinwa Unicom 5G FDD 8T8R mu kibanza cy’ikirwa cy’ibinyabuzima cya Guangzhou.Ukurikije umurongo wa FDD 2.1g 40MHz, gupima umurima wa 8T8R biteza imbere gukwirakwiza 5dB hamwe nubushobozi bwakagari kugera kuri 70% ugereranije na selile gakondo ya 4T4R.


Igihe cyo kohereza: Ukuboza-17-2021