amakuru

amakuru

Inzira yo hejuru no kumanuka ya 5G + yinganda zinganda zirimo imbaraga, kandi interineti yibintu ikoreshwa itangira mu mpeshyi

Kuzamuka no kumanuka kumurongo wa 5G + urimo gukora ibishoboka kugirango utangire iterambere ryihuse rya interineti yibintu

1.1 Mugihe cya 5G, ibintu bitandukanye bya iot birashobora kugaragara

5G itezimbere imikorere muburyo butatu bwo gusaba.Nk’uko bigaragara ku mpapuro zera za 5G Vision zasohowe n’umuryango mpuzamahanga w’itumanaho rya ITU, 5G isobanura ibintu bitatu bisanzwe bisabwa, Ni serivisi ya Broadband Broadband (eMBB) yazamuye serivisi ya mbere ya 4G ya Broadband, ultra High Reliability and Latency Latency ( serivisi ya uRLLC) kubintu bisaba igisubizo cyihuse mugihe, hamwe na serivise nini yo gutumanaho imashini (mMTC) kubintu byerekana ko umubare munini wibikoresho byitumanaho bihujwe.5G iruta kure cyane imiyoboro ya 4G ikoreshwa cyane mubijyanye nigipimo cyo hejuru, ubwinshi bwihuza, gutinda kurangira-kurangira nibindi bipimo.Imikorere ya Spectrum itezimbere inshuro 5-15, kandi ingufu zingirakamaro hamwe nigiciro cyizamurwa ninshuro zirenga 100.Usibye kurenga igisekuru cyabanjirije ikoranabuhanga ryitumanaho rigendanwa mubijyanye nigipimo cyogukwirakwiza, ubwinshi bwihuza, gutinda, gukoresha amashanyarazi nibindi bipimo, ivugurura ryibihe bya 5G rishyigikirwa cyane nibipimo ngenderwaho bihebuje, bigendeye kubikorwa byihariye byubucuruzi, kugirango tanga ubushobozi bwa serivisi zihuriweho.

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Iot ihuza ibintu biragoye kandi bitandukanye.Amashusho yanyuma ya enterineti yibintu arangwa numubare munini, gukwirakwiza kwagutse, ingano ya terefone itandukanye, hamwe nibikorwa bigoye kandi bitandukanye.Ukurikije ibipimo bitandukanye byohereza, ibintu bisabwa kuri interineti yibintu birashobora kugabanywa muri serivisi zidasanzwe zihuta zerekanwa no gusoma metero zifite ubwenge, urumuri rwumuhanda wubwenge hamwe na parikingi yubwenge, serivisi zihuta-ziciriritse zihagarariwe nibikoresho byambara, imashini za POS nubwenge ibikoresho, hamwe na serivisi yihuta ihagarariwe no gutwara ibinyabiziga byikora, kuvura intera ndende no kugenzura amashusho.

Igipimo cya 5G R16 gitanga amakuru yuzuye ya serivise yo hejuru - kandi yihuta ya serivise yagutse.Guhura nibibazo bigoye byo gukoresha interineti yibintu, protocole y'itumanaho yemejwe nayo iragoye cyane.Ukurikije intera itandukanye, imiyoboro ya interineti itagikoreshwa kuri interineti yibintu irashobora kugabanywa hafi yitumanaho ryumurima (NFC), umuyoboro wa LOCAL (LAN) numuyoboro mugari (umuyoboro mugari).Ibipimo bya 5G bivuga ibipimo bya tekiniki mumurongo mugari (WAN).Muri Nyakanga 2020, igipimo cya 5G R16 cyarahagaritswe, hashyizwemo igipimo cya NB-iot mu bice byihuta kandi giciriritse, kandi Cat 1 yihutira gusimbuza 2G / 3G, bityo imenya ko iterambere rya 5G ryuzuye rya serivisi yuzuye.Bitewe numuvuduko muke wohereza, NBIoT, Cat1 nubundi buryo bwikoranabuhanga bigabanijwemo umuyoboro mugari muto (LPWAN), ushobora kubona itumanaho rya interineti ndende hamwe nogukoresha ingufu nke.Zikoreshwa cyane cyane muri ultra-low / medium-low-service serivise zerekana nka metero zifite ubwenge bwo gusoma, itara ryumuhanda ryubwenge nibikoresho byambara byambaye.4G / 5G nuburyo bwihuse bwogukwirakwiza intera ndende, irashobora gukoreshwa mugukurikirana amashusho, telemedisine, gutwara ibinyabiziga byigenga nibindi bintu byihuta byubucuruzi bisaba gukora mugihe gikwiye.

1.2 Hejuru ya enterineti yibintu module igiciro cyo kugabanya & kumanura porogaramu ikungahaye, interineti yibintu byinganda

Urunigi rwinganda rwa interineti yibintu rushobora kugabanywamo ibice bine: urwego rwimyumvire, urwego rwubwikorezi, urwego rwimikorere hamwe nuburyo bukoreshwa.Mubyukuri, Internet yibintu niyaguka rya interineti.Ukurikije itumanaho hagati yabantu, interineti yibintu ishyira ingufu cyane mubikorwa hagati yabantu nibintu no hagati yibintu.Imyumvire ni ishingiro ryamakuru ya enterineti.Irabona ibimenyetso bisa binyuze muri sensor, hanyuma ikabihindura mubimenyetso bya digitale, hanyuma ikohereza kubisabwa murwego rwo gutwara.Ihererekanyabubasha rishinzwe cyane cyane gutunganya no kohereza ibimenyetso byabonetse na sensing layer, bishobora kugabanywa mu buryo bwogukwirakwiza insinga no guhererekanya insinga, muri byo hakaba harimo uburyo bwo kohereza.Ihuriro rya platifomu ni ihuriro rihuza, ntiriyobora gusa ibikoresho bya terefone hepfo, ariko kandi ritanga n'ubutaka bwa incubation ya progaramu hejuru.

Inganda zinganda zikuze & upstream ibiciro fatizo byagabanutse, ibiciro bya module byagabanutse cyane.Wireless module ihuza chip, kwibuka nibindi bice, kandi itanga intera isanzwe kugirango tumenye itumanaho cyangwa imikorere yimikorere ya terminal, nurufunguzo rwo guhuza imyumvire nu murongo.Ubushinwa, Amerika y'Amajyaruguru n'Uburayi ni uturere dutatu dukeneye cyane uburyo bw'itumanaho rya selile.Nk’uko ubushakashatsi bwa Techno Systems bubitangaza, ku isi hose ibicuruzwa byoherejwe na terefone igendanwa kuri interineti y'ibintu biziyongera kugera kuri miliyoni 313.2 muri 2022. Igiciro cya moderi ya 2G / 3G / NB-iot cyaragabanutse cyane bitewe n’impamvu ebyiri ziyongera ku gukura kwa interineti yibintu byinganda ninzira yihuse yo gusimbuza chip ikorerwa mubushinwa, byagabanije igiciro cyibikorwa bya module.By'umwihariko, module ya nB-iot, muri 2017, igiciro cyayo cyari kikiri ku ruhande rw'ibumoso n'iburyo rw'amafaranga 100, impera za 2018 kugeza kuri 22 yu munsi, igiciro cya 2019 cyabaye kimwe na 2G, cyangwa ndetse kiri munsi.Biteganijwe ko igiciro cya 5G modules kizagabanuka bitewe nubukure bwurwego rwinganda, kandi igiciro ntarengwa cyibikoresho fatizo nka chip yo hejuru bizagabanuka hamwe no kongera ibicuruzwa.

Porogaramu murwego rwo hasi rwurunigi rwinganda ziragenda ziba nyinshi.Nyuma yimyaka myinshi yiterambere, porogaramu nyinshi za enterineti zivuye mubishushanyo mbonera mubikorwa, nko mugusangira gusaranganya ubukungu bwisaranganya, Gusaranganya kwishyurwa, ibikoresho byishyurwa bidasubirwaho, amarembo adafite umugozi, inzu yubwenge, umujyi wubwenge, ubwenge, ingufu, inganda iot Porogaramu nk'imashini zitagira abapilote, robot, gukurikirana ibiryo, kuvomera imirima, gukoresha ubuhinzi, gukurikirana ibinyabiziga, gutwara ibinyabiziga bifite ubwenge nizindi miyoboro yimodoka.Iterambere mu nganda za iot ahanini riterwa no kugaragara kwa porogaramu zo hasi.

1.3 Ibihangange byongera ishoramari kugirango biteze imbere ubukungu buhanitse bwa interineti yibintu

Guhuza ni intangiriro ya enterineti.Gushyira hamwe no guhuza biteza imbere kandi interineti yibintu ikomeje kwiyongera.Ihuza ryibikoresho nintangiriro ya enterineti yibintu.Terminal zitandukanye zirahuzwa, kandi porogaramu zirakorwa.Porogaramu zikungahaye nazo zikurura abakoresha benshi kandi bahuza byinshi kuri enterineti.

Raporo ya GSMA ivuga ko umubare wa interineti ihuza ibintu ku isi uzikuba hafi kabiri uva kuri miliyari 12 muri 2019 ukagera kuri miliyari 24,6 mu 2025. Kuva gahunda ya 13 y’imyaka itanu, ingano y’isoko rya interineti y’ibintu mu Bushinwa yagiye yiyongera cyane. .Nk’uko bigaragara ku rubuga rwa interineti rw’ibintu byera (2020) by’ikigo cy’Ubushinwa gishinzwe itumanaho n’itumanaho, umubare wa interineti uhuza ibintu mu Bushinwa wari miliyari 3.63 mu mwaka wa 2019, muri zo hakaba harimo umurongo wa interineti w’ibintu wagize uruhare runini, ukava kuri miliyoni 671 muri 2018 kugeza kuri miliyari 1.03 mu mpera za 2019. Kugeza mu 2025, biteganijwe ko umubare wa iot uhuza u Bushinwa uzagera kuri miliyari 8.01, hamwe n’ubwiyongere bw’umwaka buri mwaka bwa 14.1%.Kugeza mu mwaka wa 2020, igipimo cy’inganda za interineti y’ibintu mu Bushinwa cyarengeje tiriyoni 1,7, kandi igipimo rusange cy’inganda za interineti y’ibintu cyakomeje kwiyongera buri mwaka ku kigero cya 20% mu gihe cy’imyaka 13 y’imyaka itanu.

Umubare wa iot uhuza uzarenza umubare wibihuza bitari iot kunshuro yambere muri 2020, kandi iot irashobora kwinjira mugihe cyo guturika.Iyo usubije amaso inyuma ukareba inzira yiterambere rya interineti igendanwa, icya mbere, umubare w’itumanaho rya terefone wageze ku iterambere ryinshi, kandi ihuriro ryatanze amakuru menshi, kandi porogaramu iraturika.Icyanenze cyane ni uko mu 2011, kohereza terefone zigendanwa byarenze ibyoherejwe na PCS ku nshuro ya mbere.Kuva icyo gihe, iterambere ryihuse rya interineti igendanwa ryatumye porogaramu ziturika.Raporo ikurikirana ya IoT Analytics ivuga ko mu 2020, umubare wa interineti y'ibintu (IoT) uhuza isi yose warenze ku nshuro ya mbere umubare utari iot ku nshuro ya mbere.Dukurikije amategeko, ikoreshwa rya interineti yibintu birashoboka cyane ko bizatangiza iki cyorezo.

Ibihangange byongereye ishoramari kuri interineti yibintu kugirango birusheho kwihutisha ubucuruzi bwibikorwa byabwo.Mu nama y’ibidukikije ya HiLink muri Werurwe 2019, Huawei yashyize ahagaragara ku mugaragaro ingamba za “1 + 8 + N” ku nshuro ya mbere, hanyuma ikurikirana itangiza ibikoresho bitandukanye bya terefone nkamasaha y’ubwenge Reba GT 2, FreeBuds 3 na terefone idafite umugozi, kugeza buhoro buhoro butunganyiriza ibidukikije IoT.Ku ya 17 Mata 2021, imodoka ya mbere y’ubwenge ifite Hongmeng OS, Alpha S, yashyizwe ahagaragara ku mugaragaro, bivuze ko Huawei izashyiramo imodoka zifite ubwenge mu bidukikije.Nyuma gato yibyo, Ku ya 2 kamena, Huawei yatangije kumugaragaro HarmonyOS 2.0, sisitemu yo gukora isi yose IoT ihuza PCS, tableti, imodoka, imyenda, nibindi byinshi.Naho Xiaomi, mu ntangiriro za 2019, Xiaomi yatangaje ko hashyizweho ingamba za “terefone igendanwa x AIoT” ya moteri ebyiri, kandi yazamuye ku mugaragaro AIoT ku rwego rwo hejuru rwo gushyira ingufu mu bucuruzi bwa terefone igendanwa.Muri Kanama 2020, Xiaomi yatangaje ku mugaragaro ko ingamba z’ibanze mu myaka icumi iri imbere izazamurwa ikava kuri “terefone igendanwa + AIoT” ikajya kuri “telefone igendanwa × AIoT”.Xiaomi akoresha ibyuma byayo bitandukanye kugirango ateze imbere ibicuruzwa byose, harimo amashusho yo murugo, amashusho yumuntu ku giti cye hamwe nubuzima bwubwenge bwa AIoT.

2 Iot kumanura porogaramu ikomatanya

2.1 Ibinyabiziga bihujwe byubwenge: Ibipimo bya tekinike kumanuka + ubufasha bwa politiki, ibintu bibiri byingenzi bitera iterambere ryihuse rya interineti yimodoka

Urunani rwinganda rwa interineti yibinyabiziga rurimo cyane cyane abakora ibikoresho, abatanga serivise za TSP, abakora itumanaho, nibindi. abakora nabategura porogaramu, epfo na ruguru igizwe ahanini n’imodoka zitanga serivisi za kure (TSP), abatanga serivisi zibirimo, abakora itumanaho n’umucuruzi uhuza sisitemu.

Serivisi ya TSP niyo nkingi ya interineti yose yimodoka zinganda.Uruganda rukora ibikoresho rutanga ibikoresho bya TSP;serivise itanga serivisi itanga inyandiko, ishusho, hamwe namakuru menshi ya TSP;umukoresha w'itumanaho rigendanwa atanga inkunga y'urusobe kuri TSP;na sisitemu ihuza kugura ibyuma bisabwa kuri TSP.

5G C-V2X amaherezo iri hasi, ituma interineti yimodoka.V2X (ikinyabiziga) ikoranabuhanga ryitumanaho ridafite insinga ni ikinyabiziga gihujwe nibindi byose ibaruwa yikoranabuhanga ryamakuru, harimo V mu izina ryikinyabiziga, X igereranya ikintu icyo aricyo cyose kijyanye namakuru yimodoka, imikoranire hagati yicyitegererezo cyamakuru harimo imodoka n imodoka (V2V) , hagati yimodoka n'umuhanda (V2I), imodoka (V2P), no hagati yabantu no hagati yimiyoboro (V2N) nibindi.

V2X igizwe nubwoko bubiri bwitumanaho, DSRC (Itumanaho rigufi ryitumanaho) na C-V2X (Imiyoboro ya Cellular Vehicle Networking).DSRC yazamuwe nk'urwego rwemewe na IEEE mu 2010, kandi yazamuwe cyane na Amerika.C-v2x ni igipimo cya 3GPP kandi kirimo gusunikwa n'Ubushinwa.C-v2x ikubiyemo LTEV2X na 5G-V2X, hamwe na lT-V2X isanzwe igenda neza kugeza kuri 5G-V2X hamwe no guhuza neza inyuma.C-v2x itanga ibyiza byinshi kurenza DSRC, harimo gushyigikira intera ndende yo gutumanaho, ibyiza bitari umurongo-wo-kureba, gukora cyane, hamwe nubushobozi buhanitse.Byongeye kandi, mugihe DSRC ishingiye kuri 802.11p isaba umubare munini wamafaranga mashya (ibice byo kumuhanda), C-V2X ishingiye kumiyoboro yinzuki bityo ikaba ishobora kongera gukoreshwa numuyoboro wa 4G / 5G mugihe gito cyoherejwe.Muri Nyakanga 2020, igipimo cya 5G R16 kizahagarikwa.5G hamwe nibikorwa byayo byiza birashobora gushyigikira ikoreshwa rya sisitemu nyinshi nka V2V na V2I, kandi tekinoroji ya 5G-V2X izashyirwa mubikorwa buhoro buhoro kugirango iterambere ryimodoka zihujwe na zhaopin.

Amerika igenda kumugaragaro kuri C-V2X.Ku ya 8 Ugushyingo 2020, komisiyo ishinzwe itumanaho (FCC) yafashe icyemezo cyo gutanga 30MHz (5.895-5.925GHz) yo hejuru ya 5.850-5.925GHz kuri c-v2x.Ibi bivuze ko DSRC, yari imaze imyaka 20 yishimira umurongo wa 75MHz gusa, yarahebwe burundu kandi Amerika yahinduye c-v2x kumugaragaro.

Iherezo rya politiki rifasha kwihutisha iterambere rya interineti yimodoka.Muri 2018, Minisiteri y’inganda n’ikoranabuhanga mu itumanaho yasohoye gahunda y’ibikorwa byo guteza imbere inganda za interineti z’ibinyabiziga (Intelligent And Connected Vehicles), zasabye kugera ku ntego yo guteza imbere inganda za interineti z’ibinyabiziga mu byiciro.Icyiciro cya mbere ni ukugera ku gipimo cyinjira cy’abakoresha interineti y’ibinyabiziga hejuru ya 30% muri 2020, naho icyiciro cya kabiri ni nyuma ya 2020. Imodoka zihuza ubwenge zifite imikorere yo mu rwego rwo hejuru yo gutwara ibinyabiziga na 5G-V2X zigenda zikoreshwa buhoro buhoro ku rugero runini mu bucuruzi, kugera ku rwego rwo hejuru rwubufatanye hagati y "abantu, imodoka, imihanda nigicu".Muri Gashyantare 2020, Komisiyo y’igihugu ishinzwe iterambere n’ivugurura, hamwe na Minisiteri y’inganda n’ikoranabuhanga mu itumanaho n’izindi minisiteri na komisiyo 11, bafatanije ingamba zo guteza imbere udushya tw’ibinyabiziga bifite ubwenge.Yasabye ko mu 2025, lT-V2X n’indi miyoboro y’itumanaho ridafite insinga zizaba zuzuye mu turere, kandi 5G-V2X izagenda ikoreshwa buhoro buhoro kuri supermarket zimwe na zimwe.Hanyuma, muri Mata 2021, Minisiteri ishinzwe imiturire n’iterambere ry’imijyi n’icyaro hamwe na Minisiteri y’inganda n’ikoranabuhanga mu itumanaho bafatanije gutanga itangazo, rigaragaza imijyi itandatu, harimo Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Wuhan, Changsha na Wuxi, nk'icyiciro cya mbere cya imijyi yicyitegererezo mugutezimbere ubufatanye bwibikorwa remezo byumujyi nibinyabiziga bifite ubwenge.

Porogaramu yubucuruzi ya “5G + Internet yimodoka” yatangijwe.Ku ya 19 Mata 2021, Ubushinwa Mobile hamwe n’ibindi bice byinshi bafatanije "Impapuro zera kuri tekinoroji ya 5G y’ibinyabiziga no Kwipimisha" kugira ngo byihutishe ishyirwa mu bikorwa rya porogaramu zikoresha ibinyabiziga 5G.5G izatezimbere cyane serivisi zamakuru, ingendo zumutekano no gukora neza mumodoka ya enterineti.Kurugero, ukurikije ibintu bitatu bisanzwe bya eMBB, uRLLC na mMTC, birashobora gutanga serivisi zamakuru nko mu ndege ya AR / VR guhamagara amashusho, AR kugendagenda hamwe no gukodesha imodoka.Serivisi ishinzwe umutekano wo gutwara ibinyabiziga nko kumenya igihe nyacyo cyo gutwara ibinyabiziga, kwirinda kugongana n’abanyamaguru no gukumira ubujura bw’imodoka, hamwe na serivisi zikora neza mu muhanda nka synthesis panoramic, gushinga ibinyabiziga no kugabana umwanya wa parikingi.

2.2 Urugo rwubwenge: Ikintu gisanzwe cyo guhuza cyashyizweho kugirango giteze imbere ubwenge bwinzu yose

Nyuma yimyaka itari mike yiterambere, urwego rwubwenge bwinganda zo murugo zirasobanutse neza.Urugo rwubwenge rufata umwanya nkurubuga, kandi ruhuza amajwi na videwo, itara, ubukonje, umutekano nibindi bikoresho murugo ukoresheje interineti yibintu byikoranabuhanga, bitanga imikorere nuburyo nko kugenzura no kugenzura.Uruganda rukora urugo rwubwenge rutanga ibyuma na software bijyanye.Ibyuma birimo chip, sensor, PCB nibindi bice, kimwe nibice bigereranijwe nka module y'itumanaho.Kugera hagati bigizwe ahanini nabashinzwe gukemura ibibazo byurugo hamwe nubwenge bwurugo rutanga ibicuruzwa;Downstream iha abakiriya kugurisha kumurongo no kumurongo no kugurisha hamwe nuburambe, hamwe nuburyo butandukanye bwurugo rwubwenge hamwe na porogaramu.

Hano haribintu byinshi byubwenge byurugo muri iki gihe, uburyo butandukanye bwo guhuza hamwe nuburyo busanzwe bwo guhuza, ntabwo byoroshye gukora byoroshye byoroshye, uburambe bwabakoresha bwibibazo, nkumukoresha yahisemo ibicuruzwa byurugo byubwenge, akenshi ntibikenewe kuborohereza, kandi bityo rero ishingiro ryibikorwa bihuza hamwe kandi bihuza byinshi murwego rwo hejuru nimwe mubintu byingenzi byiterambere ryihuse ryiterambere ryurugo rwubwenge.

Urugo rwubwenge ruri murwego rwubwenge rwo guhuza.Nko mu 1984, Isosiyete yubumenyi n’ikoranabuhanga ry’Abanyamerika ihindura imyumvire y’urugo mu bwenge, yafunguye isi kugira ngo ihangane hagati yo kubaka urugo rwubwenge rwohereze guhera ubu kuri prolopreface.

Mubisanzwe, urugo rwubwenge rushobora kugabanywamo ibyiciro bitatu: Smart Home 1.0 nicyiciro gishingiye kubicuruzwa byicyiciro cyibicuruzwa bimwe.Iki cyiciro cyibanda cyane cyane ku kuzamura ibicuruzwa byubwenge byibyiciro bitandukanye, ariko buri gicuruzwa kimwe kiratatanye kandi uburambe bwabakoresha ni bubi;2.0 nicyerekezo gishingiye kumurongo uhuza ubwenge.Kugeza ubu, iterambere ryurugo rwubwenge ruri muriki cyiciro.Binyuze kuri interineti yibintu byikoranabuhanga, imikoranire hagati yibikoresho byubwenge irashobora kugerwaho, kandi ibisubizo byuzuye byurugo rwubwenge bigenda bigaragara buhoro buhoro;3.0 izaba icyiciro-cy-abakoresha icyiciro cyubwenge bwuzuye, aho sisitemu izaha abakoresha ibisubizo byubwenge byabigenewe, kandi ubwenge bwubukorikori buzagira uruhare runini, bizagira ingaruka zimpinduramatwara mumikoranire yurugo rwubwenge.

Ku ya 11 Gicurasi 2021, hashyizwe ahagaragara protocole ya Matter protocole, urugo ruhuriweho hamwe.Ikibazo ni porogaramu nshya ya porogaramu yatangijwe na CSA ihuza ubuziranenge bwa CSA (yahoze yitwa Zigbee Alliance).Nuburyo bushya bwa IP bushingiye kumurongo ushingiye gusa kuri protocole ya IPv6 murwego rwo gutwara abantu kugirango uhuze nibitangazamakuru bitandukanye bifatika hamwe nibipimo bihuza amakuru.Matter, yahoze yitwa CHIP (Ihuza Urugo hejuru ya IP), yatangijwe mu Kuboza 2019 na Amazon, Apple, Google na Zigbee Alliance.CHIP igamije gukora porotokoro nshya yo mu rugo ishingiye ku bidukikije.Ibintu bigamije gukemura ibice bigezweho byibicuruzwa byo murugo.

Bizajyana na gahunda yicyiciro cya mbere cyibicuruzwa byemewe byemewe nibiranga urugo rwubwenge.Ibicuruzwa byambere byambere, birimo amatara nubugenzuzi, ibyuma bifata ibyuma bikonjesha hamwe nubushyuhe, ibyuma, umutekano, umwenda, amarembo, nibindi, biteganijwe ko bizagera ku isoko mu mpera zuyu mwaka, hamwe n’abayobozi ba protocole ya CHIP nka Amazon na Google, ndetse nka Huawei mumurongo.

Hongmeng OS iteganijwe guteza imbere urugo rwubwenge.HarmonyOS 2.0, izasohoka muri kamena 2021, ikoresha tekinoroji yibanze muri software kugirango ihuze ibikoresho.Ibikoresho byubwenge ntabwo bihuza gusa, ahubwo biranafatanya, kwemerera abakoresha gukoresha ibikoresho byinshi byoroshye nkimwe, bikavamo uburambe bwabakoresha.Mu kiganiro n'abanyamakuru ba hongmeng, Huawei yibanze ku kumenyekanisha interineti y’ibintu ibidukikije.Kugeza ubu, benshi mu bafatanyabikorwa bayo baracyibanda ku murima w’ubwenge, kandi biteganijwe ko uruhare rwa Hongmeng ruzamura iterambere ryihuse.

2.3 Ibikoresho byambara byoroshye: Ibikoresho byabaguzi byubucuruzi bifata iyambere mugutezimbere, mugihe ibikoresho byubuvuzi byumwuga bifata

Urunigi rwinganda rwibikoresho byambara bigabanijwe bigabanijwe hejuru / hagati / hepfo.Kwambara kwubwenge bivuga kwambara bya sensor, harimo ibikorwa byose byubwenge byabantu nibintu, kandi murwego rwo kubikoresha rurimo icyiciro cya interineti yose yibintu.Ishami ryibikoresho byubwenge byambara byibanda cyane cyane mubwenge bwabantu ni ibikoresho byambarwa, cyane cyane ibikoresho byubwenge muburyo bwo "kwambara" no "kwambara" umubiri wumuntu.Urunigi rwinganda rwibikoresho byambara byoroshye bigabanijwe hejuru / hagati / hepfo.Hejuru yimbere ni software hamwe nabatanga ibikoresho.Ibyuma birimo chip, sensor, modules zitumanaho, bateri, panne yerekana, nibindi, mugihe software yerekeza cyane cyane kuri sisitemu y'imikorere.Hagati ikubiyemo abakora ibikoresho byambara byoroshye, bishobora kugabanywa cyane mubikoresho byabaguzi nkamasaha yubwenge / amaboko, ibirahuri byubwenge nibikoresho byubuvuzi byumwuga.Inzira yo munsi yinganda zirimo cyane cyane kumurongo wo kugurisha kumurongo / kumurongo hamwe nabakoresha amaherezo.

Igipimo cyo kwinjira mubikoresho byubwenge byambara biteganijwe kwiyongera.Raporo ikurikirana IDC yerekana ko mu gihembwe cya mbere cy’umwaka wa 2021, Ubushinwa bwoherejwe ku isoko ry’ibikoresho by’ibikoresho byoherezwa mu mahanga byari miliyoni 27.29, muri byo hakaba harimo ibikoresho byifashishwa mu bikoresho byo mu bwoko bwa tekinike byoherejwe byari miliyoni 3.98, umubare w’abinjira bikaba 14.6%, ahanini bikomeza urwego mpuzandengo rw’igihembwe gishize.Hamwe nogukomeza guteza imbere ubwubatsi bwa 5G, ibikoresho byambara byoroshye, nkimwe mubisanzwe bisanzwe, byitezwe ko bizagera ku ntera yiyongera mugutegura guhora kwaduka kwimikorere ya interineti yibintu.

Nkibisanzwe bisanzwe byabaguzi IoT, abakoresha ibicuruzwa byubwenge byoroshye kwambara bifata iyambere mugutezimbere.Kugeza ubu, ibikoresho by’abaguzi byubucuruzi nibicuruzwa byingenzi byisoko, bingana na 80% byumugabane wisoko (2020), cyane cyane harimo amasaha yintoki, amaboko, amaboko hamwe nibindi bicuruzwa bishyigikiwe nintoki, inkweto, amasogisi cyangwa nibindi bicuruzwa byambarwa kumaguru ashyigikiwe nikirenge, hamwe nikirahure, ingofero, igitambaro cyo mumutwe nibindi bicuruzwa bishyigikiwe numutwe.Hariho impamvu nyinshi zibitera.Ubwa mbere, ibyuma na software birimo biroroshye.Fata sensor, ibikoresho byingenzi byibyuma mubikoresho byambara byoroshye, kurugero, ibyuma byuma bikoreshwa bikoreshwa mumaboko yubwenge hamwe numutwe wubwenge nibintu byoroshye / ibidukikije / biosensor.Icya kabiri, gukoresha ibintu bitandukanye, ibikoresho byambara byubwenge mubuvuzi, kugendagenda, guhuza abantu, ubucuruzi nibitangazamakuru nibindi bice byinshi bifite ibintu byinshi byerekana;Icya gatatu, ifite imyumvire ikomeye yuburambe no gukorana.Kurugero, amasaha yubwenge arashobora kubona ibimenyetso byingenzi byamakuru mugukomeza kuba hafi yuruhu, kandi kugenzura imyitozo no gucunga ubuzima birashobora gukorwa byoroshye kandi vuba.Kurugero, ibirahuri bya VR birashobora kumenya gufata no kwerekana ibimenyetso, no gukora ibintu byiza cyane kurubuga ruto kugirango ugere kuburambe.

Abaturage bageze mu za bukuru bateza imbere iterambere ryurwego rwubuvuzi rwumwuga rwambara ibikoresho byambara.Ibarura rusange rya karindwi ry’igihugu rivuga ko abaturage bafite imyaka 60 no hejuru yayo bangana na 18.7 ku ijana by'abaturage b'igihugu, naho abaturage bafite imyaka 65 n'abayirengeje bangana na 13.5 ku ijana, 5.44 na 4.63 ku ijana ugereranyije n'ibyavuye mu ibarura rusange rya gatandatu ry’igihugu. .Ubushinwa bumaze kuba muri societe ishaje, kandi ubuvuzi bukenerwa nabasaza bwiyongereye cyane, buzana amahirwe kumasoko yubuvuzi bwumwuga ku isoko ryibikoresho byambara.Biteganijwe ko ingano y’isoko ry’inganda z’ubuvuzi z’umwuga zo mu Bushinwa zifite ibikoresho byifashishwa mu kwambara ibikoresho bizagera kuri miliyari 33,6 mu mwaka wa 2025, hamwe n’ubwiyongere bwa 20.01% kuva 2021 kugeza 2025.

2.4 PCS ihujwe byuzuye: Icyifuzo cyitumanaho giteganijwe gutwara igipimo cyinjira muri PCS ihujwe neza

PC ihujwe byuzuye, mudasobwa ishobora guhuzwa na interineti "igihe icyo ari cyo cyose, ahantu hose".PC ihujwe byuzuye yubaka module itumanaho idafite umugozi muri PC gakondo, ituma "ihuza ryitangira": abakoresha barashobora gukora serivise za interineti zigendanwa mugihe batangiye bwa mbere, bakagera kumurongo wihuse kandi utagira umurongo, kabone niyo haba nta WiFi.Kugeza ubu, module itumanaho idafite insinga ikoreshwa cyane cyane mu makaye yo mu rwego rwo hejuru.

Icyorezo cyatumye abantu bakenera itumanaho, kandi biteganijwe ko umubare w’itumanaho winjira mu buryo bw’itumanaho uziyongera.Muri 2020, kubera ingaruka z'iki cyorezo, gukorera mu rugo, kwigira kuri interineti no gukira kw'abaguzi, ibicuruzwa bya PC byiyongereye cyane.Raporo ikurikirana IDC yerekana ko muri 2020 yose, ibicuruzwa byo ku isoko rya PC ku isi biziyongera ku mwaka ku kigero cya 13.1%.Ubwiyongere bwa PC bukomeje, aho ibicuruzwa byoherejwe ku isi hose PCS bigera kuri miliyoni 83,6 mu gihembwe cya kabiri cya 2021, byiyongereyeho 13.2% ugereranije n’umwaka ushize.Muri icyo gihe, abantu basaba ibiro "umwanya uwariwo wose n'ahantu hose" ibiro byagaragaye buhoro buhoro, bituma iterambere rya PC rihuzwa rwose.

Kwinjira muri PCS byuzuye byuzuye kurubu biri murwego rwo hasi, hamwe nuburyo bwo gutwara ibinyabiziga ikintu cyingenzi kibuza imiyoboro igendanwa kuri mudasobwa zigendanwa.Mu bihe biri imbere, hamwe n’imihindagurikire y’ibiciro by’imodoka, kunoza uburyo bwo kohereza imiyoboro ya 4G / 5G, igipimo cyo kwinjira mu buryo bw’itumanaho ry’itumanaho rya mudasobwa muri PCS giteganijwe kwiyongera, kandi biteganijwe ko kohereza PCS ihujwe byuzuye biteganijwe kurushaho kwiyongera.

3. Isesengura ryibigo bifitanye isano

Hamwe nihuta ryumuyoboro witumanaho nibindi bikorwa remezo bijyanye, kubaka ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bifata ibyuma bigabanya ubukana bwiNkibi bikurikira, tuzamenyekanisha ibigo bijyanye ninganda zitandukanye muburyo burambuye:

3.1 Itumanaho rya kure

Wireless itumanaho module umuyobozi, guhinga byimbitse module kumyaka icumi.Itumanaho rya Yuyuan ryashinzwe mu mwaka wa 2010. Nyuma yimyaka icumi yiterambere, ryabaye isoko rinini ritanga amasoko manini yinganda mu nganda, rikusanya ikoranabuhanga nubunararibonye, ​​kandi rifite inyungu zo guhatanira amasoko, UBUSHAKASHATSI niterambere, umusaruro, kugurisha, gucunga nibindi byinshi izindi ngingo.Isosiyete ikora cyane cyane mugushushanya, gukora, gukora ubushakashatsi no guteza imbere no kugurisha module itumanaho ridafite insinga hamwe nibisubizo byazo mubijyanye na interineti yibintu.Ibicuruzwa byayo bikubiyemo 2G / 3G / LTE / 5G / NB-iot module ya selile, moderi ya WiFi & BT, modul ya GNSS hamwe nubwoko butandukanye bwa antene ishyigikira module.Ikoreshwa cyane mu gutwara ibinyabiziga, ingufu zubwenge, kwishura bidasubirwaho, umutekano wubwenge, umujyi wubwenge, irembo ryitumanaho, inganda zubwenge, ubuzima bwubwenge, ubuhinzi bwubwenge nibindi byinshi.

Amafaranga yinjira n'inyungu byakomeje kwiyongera.Muri 2020, amafaranga yinjira muri buri mwaka muri sosiyete yari miliyari 6.106, yiyongereyeho 47,85% umwaka ushize;Inyungu yatashye yari miliyoni 189 Yuan, yiyongereyeho 27,71% umwaka ushize.Mu gihembwe cya mbere cya 2021, amafaranga y’isosiyete yinjije angana na miliyari 1.856, yiyongereyeho 80.28% umwaka ushize;Inyungu yabonetse yari miliyoni 61, yiyongereyeho 78.43% umwaka ushize.Ubwiyongere bw'amafaranga yinjira mu kigo bukomoka ahanini ku kwiyongera kwa LTE, LTEA-A, LPWA na 5G module y'ubucuruzi.Muri 2020, isosiyete ikora itumanaho rya simusiga itumanaho irenga miliyoni 100.

Tuzakomeza urwego rwo hejuru rwishoramari rwo gutera imbaraga mu iterambere rirambye.Muri 2020, ishoramari R&D ry’isosiyete ryageze kuri miliyoni 707 Yuan, aho umwaka ushize wiyongereyeho 95.41%.Iri zamuka ahanini rituruka ku kwiyongera kw'indishyi, guta agaciro no gushora mu buryo butaziguye, muri byo indishyi z'abakozi zagize 73.27% by'ishoramari R&D.Muri 2020, isosiyete yashinze ikigo cya R&D muri Foshan, kugeza ubu isosiyete ifite ibigo bitanu byubushakashatsi muri Shanghai, Hefei, Foshan, Belgrade na Vancouver.Isosiyete ifite abakozi barenga 2000 r & D, kugirango isosiyete ikomeze ibike kandi itangire ijyanye n’isoko ry’ibicuruzwa bishya bitanga imbaraga zo gusubiza inyuma.

Shakisha ibyiciro kugirango ugere ku nyungu zubucuruzi butandukanye.Muri 2020, isosiyete yatangije ibinyabiziga byinshi byo ku rwego rwa 5G module module, kandi ingano yubucuruzi bwimodoka-imbere yiyongereye cyane.Yatanze serivisi kubatanga Tier1 barenga 60 hamwe na oem irenga 30 izwi kwisi yose.Usibye module y'itumanaho ridafite insinga, isosiyete yanaguye ikibaho cya test ya EVB, antenne, urubuga rwigicu nizindi serivisi, muribwo urubuga rwa interineti rwibintu igicu aribwo bushakashatsi bwiterambere n’ikigo, mu rwego rwo gufasha abakiriya kugera ku ndunduro- kurangiza ubucuruzi ibintu muburyo bworoshye kandi bunoze.

Mugari na 3.2

Isi ya mbere ku isi ya enterineti yibintu byitumanaho bidasubirwaho hamwe nabatanga module.Fibocom yashinzwe mu 1999 kandi yashyizwe ku isoko ry’imigabane rya Shenzhen mu 2017, ibaye sosiyete ya mbere yashyizwe ku rutonde mu bucuruzi bw’itumanaho ry’itumanaho ry’Ubushinwa.Isosiyete yigenga kandi itegura yigenga kandi ikora igishushanyo mbonera cya 5G / 4G / LTE Cat 1 / 3G / 2G / NB-iot / LTE Cat ibisubizo kubakoresha itumanaho, abakora ibikoresho bya IoT hamwe na sisitemu ya IoT.Nyuma yimyaka irenga 20 yo gukusanya ikoranabuhanga rya M2M na iot, isosiyete yashoboye gutanga ibisubizo byitumanaho rya iot hamwe nibisubizo byabigenewe hafi yinganda zose zihagaritse.

Amafaranga yinjiye yiyongera kandi ubucuruzi bwo hanze bwateye imbere byihuse.Muri 2020, isosiyete ikora yinjije miliyari 2.744, yiyongereyeho 43.26% ku mwaka;Inyungu yabonetse yari miliyoni 284, yiyongereyeho 66,76% umwaka ushize.Muri 2020, ubucuruzi bw’isosiyete yo mu mahanga bwazamutse vuba, bugera ku miliyari 1.87 y’amafaranga yinjiza, umwaka ushize wiyongereyeho 61.37%, amafaranga yinjira ava kuri 60.52% muri 2019 agera kuri 68.17%.Mu gihembwe cya mbere cya 2021, amafaranga y’isosiyete yinjije miliyoni 860, yiyongereyeho 65.03% ku mwaka;Inyungu yo gusubira mu rugo yari miliyoni 80, yiyongereyeho 54.35% umwaka ushize.

Ibicuruzwa byikigo birimo M2M / MI imirima ibiri.M2M ikubiyemo kwishura kuri terefone, interineti yimodoka, gride yubwenge, kugenzura umutekano, nibindi MI ikubiyemo tablet, ikaye, e-igitabo nibindi bicuruzwa bya elegitoroniki.Muri 2014, isosiyete yakiriye ishoramari rifatika ryatanzwe na Intel, bityo ryinjira mubijyanye na mudasobwa ya ikaye.Yashyizeho umubano mwiza wubufatanye ninganda ziyobora nka Lenovo, HP, Dell nibindi, hamwe nibyiza byambere byimuka.Muri 2020, icyorezo cyateje ikibazo cyo gutumanaho no gutumanaho kwa mudasobwa zigendanwa.Mu bihe biri imbere, icyorezo kizagira ingaruka ndende ku kazi no ku buzima, bityo ubucuruzi bwa MI bw’isosiyete biteganijwe ko buzakomeza kwiyongera.Muri Nyakanga 2020, isosiyete yaguze umutungo w’ubucuruzi bwa Sierra Wireless ku isi hose mu bucuruzi bw’imodoka binyuze mu ishami rya Ruling Wireless, kandi ryatangije ingamba mpuzamahanga ku isoko ry’imodoka zipakurura imbere.Ku ya 12 Nyakanga 2021, Isosiyete yasohoye “Gahunda yo gutanga imigabane no kwishyura amafaranga yo kugura Umutungo no gukusanya inkunga yo gutera inkunga”, iteganya kugura 51% ya Ruiling Wireless, kumenya ko ifite umutungo wose wa Ruiling Wireless, no kurushaho kwagura isoko ryisosiyete yinjira mubijyanye na interineti yimodoka.

3.3 Himura mu itumanaho

Guhinga byimbitse kumyaka mirongo murwego rwa interineti yibintu umuyobozi wanyuma.Move for itumanaho ryashinzwe mu 2009, ubucuruzi bukuru bwibikoresho bya iot ubushakashatsi nubushakashatsi no guteza imbere no kugurisha, ibicuruzwa bikoreshwa cyane cyane mu micungire yimodoka, gucunga ibintu bigendanwa, itumanaho ryihariye kimwe nibice bine byingenzi byo gucunga inyamaswa, tanga umukiriya, harimo ubwikorezi, mobile mobile, ubwenge bworozi, guhuza ubwenge, nibindi bice byinshi byigisubizo.

Nyuma yuko icyorezo kimaze kugabanuka, inyungu yikigo & inyungu yabatahutse iratangira.Muri 2020, isosiyete yinjije amafaranga angana na miliyoni 473 Yuan, igabanuka 24.91% umwaka ushize;Inyungu zayo zari miliyoni 90.47 Yuan, zagabanutseho 44,25% umwaka ushize.Mu gihembwe cya mbere cya 2021, amafaranga yinjiza yari miliyoni 153 Yuan, yiyongereyeho 58.09% ku mwaka;Inyungu nyir'urugo yageze kuri miliyoni 24.73, yiyongereyeho 28.65% umwaka ushize.Ubucuruzi bw'isosiyete bwibanze ku isoko ryo hanze, kandi amafaranga yinjira mu mahanga angana na 88.06% muri 2020. Muri bo, Amerika y'Amajyaruguru na Amerika y'Epfo, uturere twinshi two kugurisha, twibasiwe cyane n'iki cyorezo, cyagize ingaruka runaka kuri imikorere ya sosiyete.Icyakora, hamwe no kurwanya iki cyorezo mu rugo no gutangira buhoro buhoro imirimo n’umusaruro mu bihugu byo mu mahanga, ibicuruzwa by’isosiyete byiyongereye ku buryo bugaragara ndetse n’ubucuruzi bwateye imbere.

Shimangira ku masoko mpuzamahanga ndetse n’imbere mu gihugu.Ku rwego mpuzamahanga, isosiyete yabaye umuyobozi mu bijyanye n’ibicuruzwa bikurikirana inyamaswa ku isoko rya Ositaraliya, kandi yateje imbere amasoko arimo Uburayi, Amerika y'Epfo, Amerika y'Amajyaruguru na Afurika.Ku bicuruzwa bikurikiranwa n’inyamaswa, isosiyete yatangije urubuga rwa e-ubucuruzi, ntabwo rwateje imbere urwego rw’ubucuruzi gusa, ahubwo runagabanya neza ingaruka z’icyorezo ku iterambere ry’ubucuruzi.Mu Bushinwa, muri Werurwe 2021, isosiyete yatsindiye isoko ryo gutanga amasoko ya interineti y’ibintu byasomwe (byagenwe, bigizwe n'intoki) umushinga wo gutanga amasoko ya China Construction Bank Co., LTD. isoko ryimbere mu gihugu.

3.4 kugaragara

Isosiyete niyambere ku isi ifite ubwenge bwumujyi iot ibicuruzwa na serivise zitanga serivisi.Gao Xinxing yashinzwe mu 1997 kandi yashyizwe ku isoko ry’iterambere rya Enterprises Enterprises mu 2010. Isosiyete yiyemeje gukora ubushakashatsi no guteza imbere ibicuruzwa n’ikoranabuhanga bijyanye n’imyumvire, guhuza hamwe n’urwego rushingiye ku myubakire ya interineti y’ibintu.Guhera ku ikoreshwa rya interineti yo hasi y’ibintu, hashingiwe ku ikoranabuhanga rusange ry’itumanaho ridafite insinga hamwe n’ikoranabuhanga rya UHF RFID, isosiyete imaze kubona ingamba zo guhuza ibikorwa bya “terminal + progaramu” ya interineti y’ibintu.Isosiyete yibanda kumurongo uhagaze nka interineti yimodoka, ubwikorezi bwubwenge no kumenyekanisha umutekano wabaturage, kandi ifite ibisubizo byinshi nkamakuru yibicu, umutekano witumanaho, imari yubwenge, abapolisi bashya bafite ubwenge, ingufu za interineti yibintu, umujyi wubwenge, gari ya moshi nziza, ubwenge bushya bwo gucunga ibinyabiziga nigicu cya videwo.

Ibidukikije bya macro hamwe nihindagurika ryisoko byatumye igabanuka ryinjira.Muri 2020, isosiyete yinjije amafaranga angana na miliyari 2.326 z'amafaranga y'u Rwanda, agabanuka ku kigero cya 13,63% ku mwaka;Inyungu nziza kubabyeyi - miliyari 1.103.Mu gihembwe cya mbere cya 2021, isosiyete yinjije amafaranga yinjije miliyoni 390 y’amafaranga y’inyungu n’inyungu ingana na miliyoni 56,42 y’amayero, ahanini bikaba bidahindutse kuva mu gihe kimwe cy’umwaka ushize.Ibi biterwa n’ingaruka z’intambara y’ubucuruzi hagati y’Ubushinwa na Amerika ndetse n’ikwirakwizwa rya COVID-19 mu mahanga, ryagize ingaruka ku bucuruzi bw’ikigo mu mahanga mu 2020.

Ubuhanga bwibanze bwa enterineti yibintu na videwo yubwenge.Isosiyete ifite interineti yuzuye yibintu byikoranabuhanga byitumanaho ridafite umurongo bikubiyemo sisitemu zitandukanye zitumanaho, ibicuruzwa kumwanya wambere imbere, ndetse no muburayi, Amerika, Ubuyapani, Ositaraliya nibindi byemezo mpuzamahanga.Mubyongeyeho, isosiyete ifite kandi interineti yikoranabuhanga ryimodoka, tekinoroji ya UHF RFID, amakuru manini nubuhanga bwubwenge bwa artile, tekinoroji ya AR nubundi buhanga.Kugeza muri 2020, isosiyete hamwe n’ibigo biyishamikiyeho bifite patenti zirenga 1200 zikoreshwa hamwe na software zirenga 1100 Copyrights, hamwe no kumenyekanisha isoko n’agaciro.

 


Igihe cyo kohereza: Ugushyingo-22-2021